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What Is Young-Onset Dementia?

Young-onset dementia refers to any type of dementia that develops in persons below the age of 65. Symptoms of dementia may present themselves differently in a younger person, as compared to dementia in older adults. Source: Channel NewsAsia It is a myth that dementia affects only older adults. Over 50 million people worldwide live with [...] Read More

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How The Brain Works

Dementia can affect the entire brain. Learn how the brain works and understand how changes in specific brain regions can affect the ways dementia symptoms manifest. Overview of the Brain The brain can be divided into three main regions: 1. Cerebrum (contains the cerebral cortex and other deeper brain structures) 2. Cerebellum 3. Brain stem [...] Read More

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How Dementia Changes The Brain

Knowing how dementia changes the brain, which affects dementia symptoms, helps us to understand why persons living with dementia behave the way they do. The human brain is an organ of the nervous system that controls the body’s activities, processes information received by the body, and controls psychological functions such as cognition and emotion. Changes [...] Read More

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Dementia Signs & Symptoms

Although symptoms of dementia vary between individuals, there are some common warning signs. Source: Agency for Integrated Care “When you see a person living with dementia, you have seen just one.” Every person living with dementia is unique and does not present the same symptoms. The needs and manifestations vary between individuals although there are [...] Read More

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9 Differences Between Normal Ageing & Dementia

Forgetfulness is not the only warning sign of dementia. Instead, it might be a result of normal ageing and not dementia. Learn how dementia is different from normal ageing. As we age, some of us may get more forgetful and require a bit more time to recall things, or even struggle to multitask. It can [...] Read More

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What is Person-Centred Care?

Person-centred dementia care aims to enhance the wellbeing of persons living with dementia by meeting their psychological needs, which maintains personhood. What is PCC? Person-centred care (PCC) is a way of thinking about a person living with dementia and how to support them to enhance their quality of life. When caring for a person living [...] Read More

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Experience Dementia in Singapore

What is in a Day of a Person Living With Dementia? Step into the shoes of persons living with dementia using the Virtual Reality (VR) application Experience Dementia in Singapore (EDIS). Dementia is a degenerative condition where symptoms worsen over time. By creating an enabling environment and adopting a person-centred approach in managing the condition, [...] Read More

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Making The Home Dementia-Friendly

Persons living with dementia may face challenges navigating the physical environment, due to loss of orientation, sensory acuity, visual-spatial awareness, and mobility.  Changes in their sensory system may reduce their tolerance towards environmental stimuli, such as sound levels, lighting, activity and people. For some persons living with dementia, the lack of sensory stimulation and occupational [...] Read More

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Risk Factors

There is no single cause of dementia. Rather, a combination of multiple factors is associated with the development of dementia. Family history and lifestyle factors, such as exercise patterns, dietary habits, and stress levels, are examples of risk factors that may contribute to the onset of dementia. Risk factors are characteristics which increase the likelihood [...] Read More

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Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

Here are four common non-modifiable risk factors of disease that have been associated to the development of dementia: Age The greatest risk factor for dementia is age. Although age increases risk, dementia is not a normal part of ageing, and ageing is not itself a cause of dementia. Genetics Watch Dr Joshua Kua, a Geriatric [...] Read More

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Modifiable Risk Factors & Lowering Risk

Although factors such as genes, gender, race, and age are not within control, there are things that can be done to reduce the risk of developing dementia. Individuals can make lifestyle changes to reduce their risks of developing dementia, and systemic societal changes can be made to reduce the incidence of dementia in a community. [...] Read More

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What Is Dementia?

Dementia is a collection of different symptoms characterised by a progressive worsening of memory and intellect (cognitive abilities), orientation, or personality, that is caused by the diseases that affect the brain. It is not a natural part of ageing. Persons living with dementia eventually lose the ability to do things to a level that affects [...] Read More

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Debunking Myths About Dementia

There are many myths surrounding dementia. Here are some common myths that have often exacerbated the stigma of dementia and perpetuated negative stereotypes about the condition. Misconception: Dementia is a natural part of ageing. Dementia is an illness that affects the brain and is not a natural part of ageing. It is a condition that [...] Read More

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Is It Dementia or Other Conditions?

Some conditions share symptoms with dementia. Here is a comparison between dementia, mild cognitive impairment, depression, and delirium: Dementia & Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Dementia and mild cognitive impairment are different conditions. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a disorder with a modest but noticeable and measurable decline in cognitive abilities including memory and thinking skills. [...] Read More

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Different Types of Dementia

Dementia is not a single disease but a collection of symptoms. There are different kinds of dementia that occur caused by different changes in the brain. Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) Alzhemer’s disease is the most common type of dementia. It is caused by the build-up of certain kinds of proteins in and around brain cells. It [...] Read More

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Learn About Dementia via E-Learning

Through this online course, you will get to learn the following and receive a certificate upon completion of the evaluation form and module. • What is Dementia, its types, and risk factors • ABCD Signs and Symptoms of Dementia • Interacting & communicating with people living with dementia • Ways to reduce the risk of [...] Read More

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Who Can Diagnose Dementia?

Screening vs Diagnosis Screening persons for dementia and a diagnosis of dementia are two different things. Screening for dementia with tools like the Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) cannot be used to diagnose a person with dementia. They are instead used to spot some obvious symptoms of dementia in persons [...] Read More

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Where to Get a Diagnosis?

Source: Agency for Integrated Care (AIC) Diagnosis can be conducted at several places including the hospitals listed below and certified general practitioners’ clinics. You may obtain a professional diagnosis by approaching the places below: Memory Clinics You may contact any of the memory clinics in Singapore below. Tan Tock Seng Hospital Geriatric Medicine Clinic [Basement [...] Read More

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Starting a Conversation About Diagnosis

If you suspect your loved one is displaying the signs and symptoms of dementia, you should encourage him or her to get properly diagnosed and treated. However, starting a conversation with someone on this sensitive issue may not be easy. This article will first provide a short guide to how to start a conversation with [...] Read More

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ABCDs of Dementia Progression

All types of dementia are progressive. This means that while symptoms may at first be mild, they deteriorate with time. As dementia progresses, a person with this condition will need increasingly more help and support with daily living. Dementia affects every individual differently. This includes their experience of the symptoms, the rate at which the [...] Read More

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A Summary on Tackling Dementia

The worsening of the cognition of a person living with dementia may interfere with their activities of daily living and result in changes to their behaviours and emotions. The person’s personality may appear to have changed and become “very different from their ‘old self’”. The main objectives of managing dementia symptoms are typically to: • Improve [...] Read More

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K.I.N.D Gesture & C.A.R.E Approach

Source: Dementia-Friendly Singapore Initiative There are many scenarios where persons living with dementia may face difficulties and require assistance. The K.I.N.D Gesture and C.A.R.E Approach can help us to remember what to do and be more confident when interacting and assisting persons living with dementia, especially in situations where they may appear to be lost. [...] Read More

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Applying the K.I.N.D Gesture & C.A.R.E Approach

We may encounter persons living with dementia in different situations depending on our social or work roles. Watch this prize-winning video produced by Vinn Bay and Tee Boon Leng as part of the Alzheimer's Disease International (ADI) conference in March 2009. As you watch, take note of how some members of the public interact with [...] Read More

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Communication & Interaction Skills

How Communication Can Be Affected at Different Stages of Dementia As the condition of a person living with dementia progresses, the way in which others communicate and interact with them should also change in order to tailor the interaction to their needs, and to make the most of each conversation or interaction. Early Stage  The [...] Read More

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Food Recipes

Food for Thought: Live Well, Eat Well, Think Well Recipe cards were developed in collaboration between the Agency for Integrated Care (AIC) and the dieticians from Khoo Teck Puat Hospital to encourage seniors to adopt a diet that promotes brain health and healthy living. These recipes have been adapted from diets which have been researched [...] Read More

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Recreational Activities

What Are Recreational Activities? Recreational activities are activities that people participate in for leisure. These are activities that are meant to engage persons living with dementia and are not specifically intended to meet therapeutic outcomes.1 Recreational activities differ from activities done for the purpose of therapeutic outcomes, such as activities done as therapeutic activities or [...] Read More

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Physical Exercises

Physical exercise has positive effects on the wellbeing of persons living with dementia, whether the exercise is done for recreation or as therapy. It can be done as the main focus of an activity, or as part of other activities that involve a heightened level of physical movement, such as gardening or dance. Benefits of [...] Read More

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What Are Behavioural Changes?

Dementia is accompanied by behavioural changes, which affect persons living with dementia and individuals around them. Behavioural changes can be one of the aspects of dementia that are most difficult to address. Persons living with dementia who experience behavioural changes are often described as having a “completely different personality” from their “old self”. Different behaviour [...] Read More

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Treatments for Dementia

Source: ForgetUsNot Initiative by LIEN Foundation, Khoo Teck Puat Hospital, & Dementia Singapore Caring for a person living with dementia involves many things. These include the use of both medications and psychosocial interventions (such as engagement and environmental changes to suit the person). Care plans should integrate both these kinds of treatments when addressing the [...] Read More

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Pharmacological Management of Dementia

Common Medications Prescribed for Dementia The following are some medications used to relieve some symptoms of dementia: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors 1. Helps maintain mental function 2. Donepezil (Aricept), Rivastigmine (Exelon*) and Galantamine (Reminyl) 3. Used primarily to treat mild to moderate stages of the disease although there is also evidence of effectiveness in advanced dementia 4. [...] Read More

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Tips to Manage Dementia Medications

Medication Management General TipsMissing Medications If a person living with dementia forgets to take their medication, it should be administered as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, the missed dose should be skipped. The dose should not be doubled to make up for the missed dose. Caregivers and [...] Read More

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Assistive Devices & Technologies

Smart Devices Available in Singapore Many persons living with dementia feel the urge to walk about and in some cases leave their homes. Though this walking is sometimes termed as “wandering”, it is rarely ever aimless. Persons with dementia may simply not remember where they had set out to go, or what they had intended [...] Read More

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Programmes & Services in the Community

A Network of Care and Support In Singapore, persons at risk or living with dementia can be supported by an integrated mental health network that aims to help them live well in the community. This support also extends to their caregivers. The network brings together health, social, and community care providers who serve persons with [...] Read More

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Financial Schemes

Caring for a person living with dementia requires careful financial planning, and may sometimes require the family of the person living with dementia to tap on financial resources. There are a number of government financial schemes available. The tables below list down the financial resources in the following 5 areas: • Mobility Assistance • Daily [...] Read More

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Lasting Power of Attorney

Source: Ministry of Social & Family Development Watch the video in Chinese or Malay subtitles. What Is the Lasting Power of Attorney? As dementia progresses, persons with this condition will have increasing difficulty with judgment and problem solving. You may notice that they might be less able to make sound financial and healthcare decisions. The [...] Read More

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Deputyship

A deputy is appointed by the Court to make decisions on behalf of a person who lacks mental capacity when the person has not made a Lasting Power of Attorney (LPA) and has no donee to decide on their behalf in respect of those decisions. A deputy can be an individual or a licensed trust [...] Read More

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Advance Medical Directive

An Advance Medical Directive (AMD) is a legal document signed by a person in advance, informing their doctor that they do not want any extraordinary life-sustaining treatment to be used in the event that they become terminally ill and unconscious. Making an AMD is a voluntary decision. As medical technology advances, there are increasingly many [...] Read More

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Advance Care Planning

Source: Agency for Integrated Care Advance Care Planning (ACP) is the process of planning for one’s future health and personal care. Having ACP conversations will allow your loved one with dementia to: • Share their personal values and beliefs with the family • Explore how his/her values and beliefs influence their healthcare preferences in difficult [...] Read More

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Making a Will

Planning a will is important to carry on the wishes of a person after they pass on. The will should contain clear instructions about what one wants to do with their money and the assets they own. It will also ensure that their legacy and future generations are taken care of accordingly. About a Will [...] Read More

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Palliative Care

End-of-life care, or palliative care, aims to support a person in the later stages of a life-limiting condition to live as well as possible until they pass on. It also aims to support family and caregivers during this time and after the person passes on. End-of-life care may last for weeks, months, or occasionally years. [...] Read More

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Dementia-Awareness, -Friendliness, & -Inclusiveness

Our Hope for People Impacted by Dementia We believe that a key outcome for persons living with dementia should not stop at dementia awareness or a dementia-friendly society, but the inclusion of persons living with dementia. Dementia-Awareness, Dementia-Friendliness, and Dementia-Inclusiveness A society can take steps towards dementia inclusion by first becoming aware of this condition [...] Read More

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Building a Dementia-Inclusive Singapore

Dementia can be a socially alienating illness. Many who have the condition spend their time cooped up indoors or in a nursing home, no longer able to lead normal lives. This is a shame as many persons living with dementia can continue their daily routines if given a safe and inclusive environment to do so. [...] Read More

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Be a Dementia Friend

The Dementia-Friendly Singapore (DFSG) initiative aims to build a more caring and inclusive society for persons living with dementia and their caregivers. These Dementia-Friendly Communities (DFC) are in Yishun, Hong Kah North, Macpherson, Queenstown, Bedok, Fengshan, Bukit Batok East, Woodlands and more. As part of the DFSG initiative, members of the public can sign up [...] Read More

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What Is a Dementia-Inclusive Environment?

Why Is a Dementia-Inclusive Environment Important? Researchers have predicted that the number of persons living with dementia around the globe is set to almost triple to more than 150 million by 2050.1 While dementia already presents a set of challenges for persons living with dementia and their families, stigma and discrimination worsen the psychological, social, [...] Read More

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Design Principles & Audit Tools

In recent years, there has been a growing pool of dementia-inclusive design guiding principles developed by subject matter experts, intended for laypersons, caregivers, and care professionals to address and enhance the different aspects of the physical environments that persons with dementia live in. A Dementia-Inclusive Design Process To be in line with the delivery of [...] Read More

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Dementia-Friendly Neighbourhoods

This article lists some examples of neighbourhoods in Singapore, where adjustments have been made to address the needs of persons impacted by dementia. These examples feature the adaptation of different aspects of the environment, including the physical and social environments, to aid wayfinding and support the wellbeing of persons living with dementia. In addition, this [...] Read More

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CARA: A Pioneering Membership Programme

CARA Membership Replaces NCSS’ Safe Return Card CARA replaces the existing Safe Return Card (SRC) initiative by the National Council of Social Service (NCSS) used by persons living with dementia. A pioneering membership programme by Dementia Singapore - formerly known as Alzheimer’s Disease Association (ADA) - the CARA membership will have the same safe return [...] Read More

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Dementia-Inclusive Business Toolkit

Be a Dementia-Inclusive Business In a significant step towards building a dementia-inclusive society, Dementia Singapore has launched Singapore’s first toolkit for businesses, offering a dementia-inclusive three-stage framework that can be easily integrated into their business practices. STAGE 1: AWARENESS   At this stage, businesses are just becoming aware of dementia as an issue they need [...] Read More
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