At some point, your loved one living with dementia may behave aggressively, display an outburst of emotions, or act angrily towards individuals around them.
Defining Agitation & Aggression
A set of behaviours that involve a person living with dementia experiencing verbal or motor anxiety.1
A further level of agitation in which the behaviours can be expressed through verbal abuse, threats, damaging property, physical violence towards another person or over-reacting to minor setback or criticism.1
Possible Causes of Agitation & Aggression
Sometimes, your loved one may display agitation or behave aggressively as a result of an unmet need, which is causing them discomfort. Managing their agitation and aggressive behaviour is not easy. However, it is always useful to identify the cause/unmet need that triggers the agitation and/or aggressive behaviour, and find effective ways to manage them.1
The table below lists down some possible unmet needs that your loved one may be experiencing:
Progression of dementia causing loss of control over behaviours
Physical discomfort, such as pain, fever, illness, or constipation
Adverse reaction to medications
Fatigue/ sleep deprivation
Misunderstandings due to poor eyesight/ hearing
Hallucinations and delusions
Lack of social contact and loneliness
Boredom, inactivity and sensory absence
Changing of established routine
Frustrations at not being able to complete tasks
Possibility of depression
Perception that personal space is invaded
Perception that independence and freedom are threatened
Fear of surroundings or people as he/she can no longer recognise them
Some Ways to Manage Agitation & Aggression
Communication and Interaction Style
- Try to stay calm and take a deep breath. Avoid potential confrontations. Any expression of fear, alarm, anxiety or anger may make the situation worse.
- Be patient and listen to what they are saying.
- Approach your loved one slowly, maintain eye contact and try to encourage communication.
- Validate your loved one’s feelings – reassure them and acknowledge how they are feeling.
- If your loved one living with dementia gets physically abusive
• Ensure the environment is safe by keeping away dangerous items, such as scissors, knives, or any sharp objects.
• Identify and be aware of signs or behaviour indicating agitation or aggression. Redirect your loved one’s attention to focus elsewhere early with appropriate activities, before their outburst.
• Ensure your loved one’s basic needs are met, such as hunger, thirst, and sufficient sleep.
• Try to maintain consistency in your loved one’s daily routines, environment and carers.
• Ensure your loved one’s medical conditions and medications are reviewed regularly by the doctor.
Adapted from: Changi General Hospital
Galen's Mother: A Journey Into Dementia Documented Over The Years
Galen Yeo documents the drastic changes in his mother over the years, since she was diagnosed with dementia.
She was the sociable hostess whom friends loved to be around. And then one day, she started losing her memories. Frustrated at losing who she was, she’d have moments of violent temper. Being around her became a draining ordeal. These are the challenges of #facingdementia.
Source: CNA Insider